Comparison of online pharmacies for the Drug: Proventil (Albuterol)
Proventil pharmacological properties
The active substance of Proventil (albuterol) has a bronchodilating and tocolytic effect. The bronchodilator effect is due to the relaxation of the smooth muscles of the bronchi. The drug is long-lasting. It relaxes the uterus, inhibits the contractile activity of the myometrium, and prevents premature birth.
The drug is biotransformed in the liver. It is excreted regardless of the route of administration with urine and bile, mainly unchanged.
The maximum speed of action (removal of bronchospasm) is achieved by inhalation. It positively affects the mucociliary clearance, stimulates the mucus secretion, and activates the ciliated epithelium’s functions. It impedes the release of inflammatory mediators from the mast cells and basophils (particularly, anti-IgE-induced histamine release), eliminates antigen-dependent suppression of mucociliary transport and extraction of neutrophil chemotaxis factor. It prevents the development of allergen-induced bronchospasm. It can cause desensitization and reduction in the number of beta-adrenergic receptors, including on lymphocytes. It has a number of metabolic effects. The drug reduces the potassium content in plasma, affects glycogenosis and insulin secretion, has hyperglycemic (especially in patients with bronchial asthma), and lipolytic effect and increases the risk of developing acidosis.
Indications for use
Prevention of possible complications in the form of bronchospasm and its relief in any form of bronchial asthma. Reversible obstructive processes (blockage or narrowing of the bronchial lumen) in the respiratory tract in case of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Bronchial obstruction syndrome in children. Premature birth, threatening the life of the fetus, with the increased contractile function of the uterus, labor activity up to 37th week of pregnancy, fetal bradycardia at different stages of the labor process and cervical insufficiency are also a direct indication for the use of Proventil. It can be used for the prevention of uterus surgery in pregnant women.
Instructions for the use of Proventil: way of use and dosages
Inhalation aerosol Proventil is intended for inhalation use. The use of aerosol requires compliance with specific recommendations. Before every procedure, you need to shake the can carefully, put the nozzle on it and remove the cap from the nozzle. Turning the can upside down, exhale deeply, clasp the mouthpiece with your lips, and press the can’s bottom when breathing in. After a strong injection of the drug, you should hold your breath for a few seconds, then pull the mouthpiece out of your mouth and exhale slowly. After every use, you need to cover the mouthpiece with a lid.
For young children and patients who can’t breathe correctly, you can use a spacer, which smooths out the inaccuracies of asynchronous breathing and increases tidal volume. Recommended dosage for the patients over the age of 12: relief of asthma attacks: 1-2 doses (0.1-0.2 mg); if the effect is insufficient, the inhalation can be repeated after 5 minutes. The next injection can be made only after 120 minutes or more; mild to moderate asthma: 1-2 doses 1-4 times a day. Additionally, to control moderate asthma, patients are prescribed anti-asthma drugs; prevention of exercise-induced asthma: 1-2 doses 20-30 minutes before workouts.
To prevent bronchial asthma attacks (allergen exposure or physical effort) and treatment of bronchial asthma attacks in children aged 2 to 12, it is recommended to take 1-2 doses. The maximum daily dose is 12 inhalations (1.2 mg).
Albuterol can cause the following side effects: respiratory system (very rarely) – cough, paradoxical bronchospasm; immune system:
- nasal congestion, urticaria, erythema, bronchospasm, angioneurotic edema and other hypersensitivity reactions; metabolic processes
(rarely) – hypokalemia, reverse metabolic syndrome (including increased level of blood glucose concentration);
- cardiovascular system: rarely – increased blood pressure (BP), a slight increase in heart rate; very rarely – arterial hypotension, arrhythmia (including supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation and extrasystoles) and collapse;
- face hyperemia (expansion of peripheral vessels); nervous system: frequently – headache, tremor; rarely – vertigo; very rarely – sleep disturbance, fatigue, increased excitability, insomnia and anxiety; musculoskeletal system: rarely – muscle cramps;
- digestive system: rarely – violation of taste; rarely – sickness, vomiting, irritation or dryness of the oral mucosa and pharyngitis.
Overdose of Proventil leads to the following symptoms: frequently – sickness, vomiting, drop in blood pressure, muscle tremor, tachycardia, and hypokalemia; less frequently – headache, respiratory alkalosis, agitation, hypoxemia, and hyperglycemia; rarely – tachyarrhythmia, expansion of peripheral vessels, ventricular flutter, cramps, and hallucinations. The best antidotes for drug overdose are cardioselective beta-blockers, but they should be used with caution, because of the high risk of developing bronchospasm. If you take high doses of Proventil, you need to control serum potassium concentration (due to the possible development of hypokalemia).
In the treatment of severe or unstable bronchial asthma, Proventil should not be the only or main treatment method. The therapeutic effect of the drug must be preserved for at least 3 hours. If the effect decreases or the duration of the action decreases, you should consult a doctor. There must be a break of at least 120 minutes between inhalations because more frequent drug intake increases the risk of bronchospasm and sudden death. Insufficient effect of the recommended dosage for controlling the symptoms of bronchial asthma can indicate the exacerbation of the disease and the need to revise the treatment plan with additional prescription or increase in the dose of inhaled/systemic glucocorticoids. Because of the risk of developing hypokalemia against the background of the use of β2-agonists, special care should be taken for severe attacks of bronchial asthma. Patients need to be provided with regular monitoring of serum potassium levels, as hypokalemia can increase because of hypoxia and concomitant therapy with xanthine derivatives, diuretics, and glucocorticoids.